warmd controls caches used during startup and login. It is a launch daemon started by launchd during boot and is not meant to be invoked directly.

Apple forums describe it in more detail as:

While performing this work, warmd also listens for warming requests from its associated launch agent, warmd_agent. warmd will wait for such requests for a little while after its launch to help the case of a user booting to the login UI and login a little while later. The maximum wait is 10min today.

warmd_agent is only launched during Aqua logins. It retrieves the list of the 10 most recent applications launched by the user, as reported by LaunchServices.
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